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This variation provides the basis for a range of studies in evolutionary cytology.
In some cases there is even significant variation within species.
Attention is paid to their length, the position of the centromeres, banding pattern, any differences between the sex chromosomes, and any other physical characteristics.
The study of whole sets of chromosomes is sometimes known as karyology.
The basic number of chromosomes in the somatic cells of an individual or a species is called the somatic number and is designated 2n.Although the replication and transcription of DNA is highly standardized in eukaryotes, the same cannot be said for their karyotypes, which are highly variable.There is variation between species in chromosome number, and in detailed organization, despite their construction from the same macromolecules.In the germ-line (the sex cells) the chromosome number is n (humans: n = 23). So, in normal diploid organisms, autosomal chromosomes are present in two copies. Polyploid cells have multiple copies of chromosomes and haploid cells have single copies.The study of karyotypes is important for cell biology and genetics, and the results may be used in evolutionary biology (karyosystematics) and medicine.
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Normal karyotypes for females contain two X chromosomes and are denoted 46, XX; males have both an X and a Y chromosome denoted 46, XY.